There are two options for nudging available in CESM, generally referred to as 'specified dynamics' and 'physics-side nudging'.  To use physics-side nudging in your simulation, see the CAM User's Guide, Section 8.6.  All configuration is set in the namelist (user_nl_cam), and numerous options are available.  CESM2.2 has a compset, FCnudged, with a standard configuration (except, it is recommended to use  model_times_per_day = 48, instead of the default  model_times_per_day = 24).

For physics-side nudging, available reanalysis data is pre-processed prior to model use. This preparation step interpolates the desired reanalysis data onto a given model grid, adjusts values to account for topographical differences between the reanalysis model and the current topography of CESM, and saves the results in individual files with one time slice per file. The scripts that carry out this processing must be configured for each combination of input reanalysis dataset and output model grid. The scripts are currently available for the FV and SE dycore grids.

The processing scripts are slightly different for the two available dycores, so they are contained in separate directories in the IPT repository in each directory, there is a README that provides general guidance for setting the script variables for a desired reanalysis product.










For the FV dycore, the directory Gen_Data_f09 has processing scripts set up for a 1 degree grid. Within this directory, there are two csh scripts, one configured for processing MERRA2 data and the other for processing ERA-Interim data. If a user desires data from either of these reanalysis products, then all that is needed is to adjust the dates for processing, the paths for input/output files, and any changes in vertical grid or topography values. The NCL scripts are pre-configured for a number of available reanalysis products (see makeIC_extract_analysis_info.ncl), so converting to one of those will just involve editing a csh script to set the paths and processing options consistent with the product. See the README for guidance. If, on the other hand, a user has a newer or other reanalysis product, then a template must be added in the NCL programs to define the structure of the input dataset. For this case, the user should use a known and familiar existing template in the NCL programs as a guide.

In the Spectral_element_dycore directory, there are sub-directories containing scripts that are configured for a particular SE grid. The Gen_Data_ne30 directory has scripts set up for a uniform 1 degree spectral element grid, Gen_Data_ne30pg3 is set up for a physics grid, and Gen_Data_ne0CONUSne30x8 is configured for the variable resolution CONUS grid.  In each of these there are Gen_*.csh scripts set up for MERRA2 and other reanalysis products. As for the FV dycore, the README provides some guidance in making modifications to these scripts. There is also a directory that can be used as a template when tailoring the scripts for a user defined VR grid.

One substantial difference with the FV processing is in the horizontal interpolation. When the scripts for the SE grids were being developed, there were significant errors in the ESMF processing at the poles and for wrap around gridpoints. Complicating the development, was the fact that each update to the ESMF routines within NCL would result in failures in the processing scripts. For this reason, a version of the ESMF processing routines that contain fixes for these errors is included with the reanalysis processing scripts in the Gen_Data directory (ESMF_regridding.ncl). From the user stand point, this means that for each horizontal SE grid, the user must edit makeIC_se_002.ncl and set a hardcoded path to the SCRIP file for that grid. Note that the ESMF processing routines have been substantially improved since this time, but it is not known if the pole problems have been resolved. So a user may wish to revise the scripts to eliminate the ESMF code and use the up to date ESMF routines in NCL instead. The plan moving forward is for this processing step to be carried out at run time directly from the reanalysis archives (making these scripts unnecessary), so for the time being these scripts will continue as is without further development.

The WRAPIT problem:

The NCL scripts depend on FORTRAN subroutines which must be pre-compiled to create a shared library ( using the WRAPIT command. This command has lead to some problems in the past. As NCL was updated, this command would occasionally fail to work. Since NCL is no longer under development, this should not be a problem, but if users have errors due this command not working correctly, a work around is to reference that command from a previous release of NCL. 

The other problem is for users that need to process a large amount of data. The processing scripts can take quite a long time to run, so to speed up the process a RUNNUM variable was added to the script so that multiple copies can be run at the same time. Since the processing is in a common directory, the WRAPIT command from one instance clobbers the shared library used by all. This would result in total failure. Users who need to run in this manner must comment out the WRAPIT command in the script and run it to create the library prior to submitting the processing scripts.

Example: Modifying the Scripts For a Newly Created Grid to run on CASPER (Jan 2024)

As an example of the steps needed to process data for a new variable resolution SE grid, suppose you have a new grid ne0np4.SAM01.ne30x4 for a uniform ne30 SE resolution with a regional refinement to ne120 over South America and you plan to use MERRA2 reanalysis data. Begin by making a copy of the NEWGRID directory for your new grid:

casper%  cp -r Gen_Data_NEWGRID Gen_Data_ne0np4.SAM01.ne30x4

casper% cd Gen_Data_ne0np4.SAM01.ne30x4

casper% mv Gen_MERRA2_NEWGRID.csh Gen_MERRA2_ne0np4.SAM01.ne30x4.csh

Now edit your new script, and set the PBS commands:

#PBS -N Gen_MERRA2_ne0np4.SAM01.ne30x4
#PBS -A Pxxxxxxx
#PBS -l select=2:ncpus=4:mpiprocs=4:mem=20GB
#PBS -l walltime=12:00:00
#PBS -q casper
#PBS -o Log.Gen_MERRA2_SAM01.err
#PBS -e Log.Gen_MERRA2_SAM01.out

After making the changes below you can submit this job on casper:

casper% qsub Gen_MERRA2_ne0np4.SAM01.ne30x4.csh

In the Configuration section, set the reference date corresponding to the first day of data you desire, then number of days of data to process from that date, and the path where you wish to have the data stored:




 # Set a REFERENCE (Starting) Date and the number of days to process


 set RUNNUM=01

 set REF_DATE='20121201'

 set NUM_DAYS=400

 # Set INPUT/OUTPUT/TMP directories


 set NAMELIST='./Config/Config_makeIC-'$RUNNUM'.nl'

 set MYLOGDIR='./LOG/LOG_002.'$RUNNUM'/'

 set MYTMPDIR='./TMP/TMP_002.'$RUNNUM'/'

 set MYOUTDIR='/path/to/my/repo/ne0np4.SAM01.ne30x4/nudging/MERRA2_ne0np4.SAM01.ne30x4_L32/'

 set INPUTDIR='/glade/collections/rda/data/ds313.3/orig_res/'

 # Set ESMF options


 set ESMF_interp='conserve'

 set ESMF_pole='none'

 set ESMF_clean='False'

 set ESMF_clean='True'

For the processing options, set the CASE name. This is the root filename for your nudging data files. Note that some reanalysis datasets store winds in the form of vorticity and divergence values rather then U,V. It is important that the VORT_DIV_TO_UV flag is set to True for these datasets, this is a common source of processing errors. Finally, set the fname_grid_info value to point to a file containing the desired ouput grid, and set fname_phis_output to point to a file containing the model topography.

 # Set Processing options


 set CASE   = 'MERRA2_ne0np4.SAM01.ne30x4_L32'

 set DYCORE     = 'se'

 set PRECISION = 'float'

 set VORT_DIV_TO_UV = 'False'

 set SST_MASK           = 'False'

 set ICE_MASK           = 'False'

 set OUTPUT_PHIS      = 'True'

 set REGRID_ALL        = 'False'


 set MASS_FIX           = 'True'

 # Set files containing OUTPUT Grid structure and topography


 set fname_grid_info = '/path/to/my/repo/ne0np4.SAM01.ne30x4/inic/'

 set fname_phis_output = '/path/to/my/repo/ne0np4.SAM01.ne30x4/topo/'

 set ftype_phis_output = 'SE_TOPOGRAPHY'

The last modification that is needed for this example is to edit the file makeIC_se_002.ncl. At about line 430, the dstGridName variable has to be set to use the SCRIP file for your new grid:


 ; WORK AROUND: the 'unstructured_to_ESMF' routine is

 ;           not good for non-graphic interpolation.

 ;           It's okay for plotting values, but not

 ;           for the mapping we want to do. For now a

 ;           SCRIP file for ne30 will be sliced in so

 ;           we can get some work done.

 ;           RHS updated this for SE-RR these are SCRIP files


 ; dstGridName=mytmpdir+"/DstGrid"+dstlab+".nc"

 ; dstGridName="/glade/p/cesmdata/cseg/mapping/grids/"

 ; dstGridName="/glade/p/cesmdata/cseg/mapping/grids/"

 ; dstGridName="/glade/p/acom/acom-nsc/musicav0/misc/ASD2017_files/grids/scrip/"



With these changes, the script can be submitted to generate the desired 400 days of data. The user must alway check the Log and output file to verify that the dataset was processed correctly. Selecting some files and browsing variables for valid values using ncdump can save a lot of time and effort if there were problems during the processing. 

The README files will be helpful for users wishing to use alternate reanalysis datasets.

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