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Earth—No preceding "the." Always written up, except when referring to soil. Sun is also always up, but moon may be written down. [revised 08/2001]

Earth system— "system" not capitalized. Open (no hyphen) as both noun and adjective. [09/2000]

ed.—abbreviation for edition; used in reference and publication lists. Edition numbers are treated according to the usual rule for numbers: first ed., 12th ed.

Ed.—abbreviation for editor; used in reference and publication lists

editorial notes—In all publications, these are styled in italics with no indent. At end; use —Ed. (that's an em dash).

e.g.—not in italics; always set off by commas; stands for "exempli gratia" (for example)

Ekman-Hartmann boundary layers

E-layer—always hyphenated

email—no longer written with a hyphen [revised 03/2011]

electro-optical—Use hyphen.

elements—See "chemical elements."

El Niño—with tilde. Often El Niño/Southern Oscillation.

emission-line profile—Use hyphen.

Employee Activities Committee—abbreviated EAC

en dash—See Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed., sections 5.115–5.117, for full rules. Use an en dash in the following circumstances:

  • between inclusive numerals: 1983–84, 10–12 May. But note that May-June 1984 should have a hyphen.
  • between dates containing two or three elements: 10 April–10 June, 10 April 1983–10 June 1984.
  • in a compound adjective if one element either contains two words or is hyphenated.
  • in sports scores
  • as the minus symbol in temperatures below zero

England—rather than United Kingdom; see also exceptions at "United Kingdom."

English institutions—use their spelling (e.g., "Centre")

enstrophy—mean square vorticity

enumerations—See "lists, numbered or lettered" and Bullets.

Equal Opportunity Employer—brochures, news releases, and pamphlets should include the statement: UCAR [or NCAR] is an Equal Opportunity Employer.

equations—It's up to the author whether to number equations or not. Abbreviate in-text citations except at the beginning of a sentence. For example:

But we find (Eq. 5) that . . .
In Eqs. 23 and 25 we find . . .
From Eqs. 4–7 we derive that . . .
Equation 17.1 provides that . . .

Always include Eq. or Equation with the number. [revised 02/2000]

Ethernet—communications network (trademark of Xerox)

Eulerian—initial cap (measures parcels of air passing over a point; cf. "Lagrangian")

exhibit titles—use title caps and italics, Wave Tank, Thunderstorm Detectives. [ASTC style, 02/2000]

Explorer—the Schweizer SGS 2-32 sailplane; we use italics for this in our periodicals. Explorer is the name of this individual sailplane, not the name of a class or type.

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