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Fahrenheit—Spell out on first use for popular audiences but not in technical material. (See also "degrees.")

fathom—convert to U.S. customary 6 feet or metric 1.83 meters. [2/00]

fiber glass—two words (not hyphenated adjectivally)

figures—Every numbered figure must be called out in text. For these, spell out the word "Figure" when it begins with a sentence; otherwise (when associated with a figure number) abbreviate it as "Fig."

finger—Internet tool

fiscal year—Spell out on first occurrence; to abbreviate, "fiscal year (FY) 1982," then FY 82 later.

fixed spaces—See "line breaks."

F-layer—always hyphenated

fluorocarbon—See "chlorofluorocarbon."

FM—frequency modulation; always abbreviated

follow-up, follow-through—always hyphenated [08/01]

Foothills Laboratory—FL1, FL4; Abbreviate the main Foothills Lab FL1/2/3. [2/00]

footnotesChicago Manual of Style calls these "a difficult luxury." They should be avoided. In the very few cases in which a footnote is truly essential, its style will depend on the style of the NCAR publication it appears in.

foreign institutions—use British spelling for Commonwealth institutions and UN entitites: United Nations Environment Programme. With the sole exception of Academia Sinica, translate the names of all foreign institutions into English but give the acronym in the original language: France's CNRS (National Center for Scientific Research). If you are unsure of a translation, try the Foreign Institutions list or refer to the hard-copy World of Learning. When translation is not available, use the foreign-language acronym plus an English description of the institution: LAPAN (the Indonesian space agency). [updated 2/00 and 8/05]

For Canadian institutions, include the province (the only country for which we do this).

foreign names—always include the diacritical marks in names of people (e.g., Jean-François)

foreign periodicals—Do not translate the title.

foreword—usually not by the author. (He or she writes a preface.)

Fort—Do not abbreviate: Fort Collins. (See also "Saint" and "Mount")

FORTRAN—all caps (American Heritage Dictionary, Third Edition), (SCD may follow the international standards committee's decision on programs written in or after 1990: Fortran 90.)

Fountain Plaza—initial caps. [05/01]

Fourier—Always use initial cap: fast Fourier transform.

fractions—Write out straightforward ones with a hyphen: "Three-quarters of the staff. . . ." More complicated ones are better expressed as percentages: "Of those polled, 64% favored. . . ."

Freon—see "chlorofluorocarbon."

front matter—proper order is

title page
table of contents
list of figures
list of tables
foreword (by someone other than the author)
preface (by the author) and acknowledgments

See Chicago Manual of Style for full descriptions of these.

Fujita, Tetsuya Theodore